Invasions by the Hyksos 1674 BC. Expelled 1567 BC
Invasion by the Greeks 332 BC.
The whole of North Africa fell to the Romans after 146 BC.
The Arab Islamic invasions of Africa began in the 7th century AD.
There is ample evidence in African scholarship to show that the West African Empires were a continuation of and an extension of Egyptian civilization.
The first empire of which there is extant knowledge was ancient Ghana with its capital at Kumbi, which flourished from the 5th to the 11th century AD.
Muslim empires were Mali (c. 1250-1400)
Its successor, the Songhai of Gao (c. 1400-1591).
During the same period came the rise of the empire of Kanen-Bornu around Lake Chad, which reached the height of its power in the 17th century.
East African-Arab settlements developed into powerful city-states: Mogadishu, Mombasa, Lamu, Kilwa, and others, by the 13th century.
In the 16th century, those city-states were destroyed by the Portuguese.
The Portuguese were in turn ousted by the Omani Arabs who established the slave-trading state of Zanzibar.
The Bantu-speaking empire of Mwene Matapa and other dynasties arose inland from the East African coast.
The kingdom of the Kongo was located near the mouth of the Congo River, and others lay farther south.
Most of these empires were weakened and in many cases destroyed by the early colonial powers from Europe and Arabia that coveted their trade and supplanted them, turning much of the trade to external rather than internal markets and creating new trade goods, notably slaves.
No one know the number of Africans enslaved and taken out of Africa during this period.
Europeans attempt to down play the numbers, in order make this horrendous genocidal crime against humanity (holocaust)appear to be less than it was.
They use a figure of 10,000,000. However, Leopold, by himself killed that many.
The slave trade covered some 400 years.
The number of slaves actually taken from Africa probably numbered about 35,000,000.
When we take into account, the fact that for every African enslaved some 2-3 were killed or died before they reached their final destination,
The total number of Africans killed, maimed murdered, destroyed probably comes closer to 100,000,000 over that time period.
Given the fact that African Empires, Societies, Communities, and infrastructure were destroyed during this period it is not difficult to estimate that 100,000,000 million Africans had their lives destroyed during this period.
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to undertake systematic voyages of discovery along the African coast (15th century).
The Dutch presence in South Africa dates from 1652.
By 1884 European countries had begun a scramble to partition Africa.
By 1920 every square mile of Africa except for Ethiopia, Liberia, and the Union of South Africa was under colonial rule.
Independence movements in Africa developed primarily in Ghana and became widespread after 1950, and, one by one, the colonies became independent.
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